The Portfolio Guide from EFA

Portfolio: artists visit prospective clients to sell their products and win commissions. They take along examples of their best work to demonstrate their abilities. This collection of products - and the folder in which it is kept - is called a portfolio.

  1. Introduction
  2. Homepage
  3. Curriculum Vitae
  4. Products
  5. Process report
  6. Competencies
  7. Presentations
  8. Overviews
  9. Links
  10. Tools
  11. Appendix-Used terms

1. Introduction

In this guide you can find out how and why you are going to make a portfolio during your studies. In your portfolio you collect your products and tutors’ and fellow students’ comments on them. In this way you can start to build a picture of yourself and your progress during your studies. But the EFA portfolio goes further than an artist’s portfolio: it is also a place to look critically at what you’ve done. In it you describe how you have learnt things and what exactly you have learnt while making a product, as well as what you would do differently next time, what you haven’t yet learnt and where you still need to develop. You also describe the aspects of your product which you are not so happy with: in other words you make your learning process not just self-concious, but visible to others as well.

This learning process eventually leads to you becoming a (better) qualified teacher. The requirements for this qualification have been nationally agreed in the Netherlands. The Faculty of Education in Amsterdam (EFA) has worked these requirements into professional teaching competencies. These competencies have been (or are in the process of being) formulated for three different levels for each programme of studies (in the Netherlands) so they can be included in the portfolio.

  1. At the end of the Foundation Year (approximately equivalent to first year of B.Ed.), you are qualified to enter the higher years of study.
  2. After another two and half years of study, you become qualified to start on your Final Teaching Placement  (training stage).
  3. After successful completion of the Final Teaching Placement you will be qualified to start teaching and you will be able to graduate and look for a job as a teacher.
Being qualified means that you can start teaching, but it doesn’t mean that you have reached the end of your learning. Some competencies are only mastered by very experienced teachers. So after you finish studying you will keep on developing your competencies.

As a student it is up to you to show how far you have progressed with the competencies. At the end of the foundation year you will need to prove that you are qualified to enter the higher years of study. The portfolio is an important instrument in helping you to do this; you will present your progress on the basis of your portfolio. This is where you have collected the evidence to show how you have developed. This approach  represents a poweful and versatile tool not only in teacher education, but in many aspects of active life in virtually any field.

When you are collecting ‘evidence’ in your portfolio there is no need to restrict yourself to the products and assignments you have carried out as part of your studies. You will probably have been involved in all sorts of other activities which have contributed to your development in the competencies. You might have been involved in training 12-14 year olds at your local football club; in this case you will certainly have learnt quite a few things about dealing with children during adolescence. This practical experience will have contributed to your development in the competency domain pedagogical skills. Or perhaps you have a job in a company where you have to work intensively with others. Your experience here will come in handy when you have to take part in learning practices. So you can include a report of all these activities in your portfolio, as long as you clearly demonstrate how each activity has contributed to your development as a teacher.

Of course you will want to include your best work in your portfolio; but it is also important to be able to show how you have improved. You can do this by including a first version of a product as well as the final product. As you progress in your studies it is likely that you will want to remove products from your portfolio: you will have made new products which show your development in a certain area much better. We advise you to include all your products in the first year; you will probably only be able to judge which products to include or not later in your studies. Your tutors will also advise you about which products to include in your portfolio.

The form as well as the content of your portfolio is important. The form in which you choose to present yourself says a great deal about who you are: do you prefer a simple presentation or one which is more colourful? Lots of pictures and gimmicks or just the essential details? It is important to think about how you want to present yourself to the outside world.

Portfolios can take different forms. The cardboard folder used by an artist is just one of these. At EFA we have chosen to have a digital portfolio in the form of a home page, which will be accessible through the EFA intranet (only accessible within EFA) or in a ‘private’ section of the Internet.

Why have we chosen to have a digital portfolio?

  1. A digital portfolio makes it possible to organize a great deal of material clearly and compactly.
  2. In a digital portfolio you can include all different kinds of products: text, audio or video recordings, photos and so on.
  3. With hyperlinks you can show the links between different parts of the portfolio and how different products are related to each other and to the programme.
  4. Experience with digital portfolios elsewhere suggests that you will probably find it motivating to present yourself on your own website.
  5. Working on the portfolio will contribute to the development of your information and communication technology (ICT) skills. It is becoming easier to make a website and even possible for those of you who are not so digitally-gifted, and this is for life.
  6. Through placing the portfolio on the Internet or Intranet (less publicly accessible) it can become a means of communication between you and your fellow students and tutors, (or pupils, later...).
  7. Finally, you can continue to develop your portfolio even after finishing your studies and when you apply for a job; you can even present yourself to your future employer through your own home page.
At EFA the responsibility for learning rests for a large part with you, the student. This responsibility is made concrete through the portfolio. You have a great deal of freedom in how you create your portfolio and include products. You also have an opportunity to formulate your own learning aims and so determine your own learning process. It is intended that later in your studies you will have the freedom to make a number of choices between learning practices and to decide for yourself how you will master the competencies. The portfolio makes it possible for you to show that you have acquired the necessary competencies for teaching in the way which suits you best. The portfolio should become something personal to you, something which belongs to you, a personal diary of how you experienced your studies. It can be very valuable to you (as well as fun) to look back over your development at the end of your studies. What did you think about becoming a teacher when you first started? How did you experience giving your first lesson?

So you will use the portfolio to make a record of your development. This will help you to understand what the best way is for you to learn and what your special strengths and weaknesses are. But learning doesn’t end when you leave the university/college. If you want to become a real professional and enjoy your work, you will need to keep on learning and developing. The portfolio is a means of finding out how you learn so that you can keep on doing this long after you have finished studying. In this sense your portfolio is really the start of a long journey of discovery.

As well as giving you a lot of freedom the portfolio also has a number of requirements. Your tutors need to keep track of your progress in regard to the competencies. With your portfolio (and the evidence it contains) you need to be able to show your mentor and assessors that you understand your learning process and what the competencies imply. For this reason there are a number of compulsory elements in the portfolio. However you are free to include these elements in any form you wish.

The compulsory elements of the portfolio are:

These elements together from the main ‘menu’ of the portfolio. In this guide each of these elements will be explained in more detail.

In order to provide you with support while working on your portfolio, we have developed a Portfolio Info site, where you can find all the information you need about the portfolio and how to use it. This site includes:

You can find this Portfolio Info site by clicking the (i) ‘Portfolio Info Site’ at the top right of the window. This menu option appears as i for information. Clicking on this (i) will take you to the relevant section of the Portfolio Guide.

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2. Homepage

This is the first page of your portfolio, the opening page. This page is always accessible to the students and tutors of the programme. You can screen off all the following pages using an authorisation tool. In this opening page you introduce yourself to anyone visiting your portfolio. You can do this for example by means of a photo, picture and/or text. You should definitely include your name and programme of studies. Otherwise we leave it up to you to present yourself as you wish.

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3. Curriculum Vitae

In a CV you give a short summary of your life so far. Employers often ask for a CV when you apply for a job. They expect you to include things like:
  1. Your personal details: full name, address, etc.
  2. Your education: secondary school and, of course, the University where you are studying now and any previous places where you have studied.
  3. Your educational qualifications: secondary school leaving certificate, including subjects, and any other qualifications you may have (e.g., foundation year certificate from another institute)
  4. Your work experience: you can include any work you have ever done (e.g. part-time jobs or unpaid work like assisting at your local community centre, or singing in a band)
  5. Other diplomas and skills: driving licence, computer skills, languages spoken etc.
  6. Your interests: hobbies, passions, sports and so on.
You can present your CV in any way you like (in fact the way you present your CV says a lot about the way you see yourself) as long as you follow these tips:
  1. Make the information clear to the reader at a glance: i.e. pay attention to the lay out.
  2. Make the information understandable for an international reader: i.e. translate everything into English.
  3. Include dates (i.e. years ) wherever you can.
For the university portfolio, you will also be making a CV of your studies. This means that for your portfolio CV you must also include a list of the modules/courses (learning practices) you are taking and your products from these modules.

Don’t worry if your CV seems a bit empty at first. That’s only natural. As you progress through the programme it will soon start to fill up and before long you’ll find yourself having to cut it down by editing out all the less important bits. But for now just try and include everything you can think of, however unimportant it may seem. Have fun!

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4. Products

Content and aims

The term product refers to any physical object (a report, a recording, an essay etc.) which you make as part of your studies and which is relevant to your future profession as a teacher. Clicking Products in the main menu of the EFA sofrware will take you to the part of the portfolio where you collect these products. The most important reason for this collection of products is for you to be able to document how you have progressed. At the end of the Foundation Year you will have to present your progress in a presentation and you will need to use your products and evaluations to show your development. Therefore you should include not only (extracts from) your final products but also your first attempts to show the difference between the first version and the final product. In this way you can show where your weaknesses lay and what you did to improve them; the feedback you receive from your tutor and other students will help you in this.


1. Make an opening page for the products section of your portfolio.
On the opening page you should make an index of all the products which you are including in your portfolio. You can arrange these in any way you want. Ask your tutor which products must be included. For each product in the list include:

2. Make an introduction to each product you are including.

The introduction should say enough to make someone browsing through your portfolio know whether they want to look at the product itself. It must at least give information about:

In the introduction you should also make hyperlinks to: If you are including more than one product for a module, you can: 3. Digital or not?

The intention is that eventually as many products as possible are included in a digital form in the portfolio. However there are a number of limitations:

You may therefore decide to collect some non-digital products for your final presentation. In this case you should include an introduction and a short description with perhaps a photo and a process report for the product.

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5. Process report

In the process report, you show what you have learnt while making this product. The product shows what you have achieved, while in the process report you analyse your learning process, the process which led to this product. Think about all the different steps you took to arrive at the product. The process report should show the obstacles you met along the way and the solutions you found. As well as the difficulties you encountered, you should also describe what went well and what you were good at. Use the feedback you received from your tutor and other students to help you with this. Writing the process report should help you to understand your individual strengths and weaknesses. Your report should make clear what aspects of your product you are satisfied with and anything you are less happy with. From this you should draw conclusions about what you will do differently in the future.

You can make a separate process report for each product or you can make one process report for all the products and other work (exams, group assignments and so on) from one module as a whole. But take care to restrict your report to your own work and functioning. This is not the place to make an evaluation of the tutor and the nature of the activities you were involved in. (You will do this in your evaluation of the module).

In your process report you must also refer to the competencies and show what you learnt in relation to a number of specific competencies. The module description in the subject guide should make it clear which competencies are addressed in the module. If you need more information about this consult the module tutor or your mentor. The conclusions you reach about your progress in relation to the competencies should be copied and saved in the Competencies section of your portfolio as well. (see section 6). In this way you will build a comprehensive overview of your learning process which you will use later on when you come to make a learning report about a whole period (when your mentor asks you to do this). Your process reports will also help you to compile information for your presentation at the end of the foundation year.

Here are some suggestions for questions you might ask yourself while writing your process report:

When you are answering questions like those above it is important not to get stuck in generalities (e.g. ‘the planning went well’ or ‘I enjoyed it’) but to support everything you say with a specific reference to what you experienced (e.g. ‘we planned to take 4 hours making the recording and it took us exactly that amount of time because we had prepared everything in advance’) or by referring to the product itself (e.g. ‘our planning was inadequate: as you can hear the last section of the recording has some mistakes in it because we had no more time left to rerecord this section’).

Here are some examples of different process reports. Which one(s) meet the criteria described above?

Example 1

I learnt a lot. The teacher was also satisfied because I passed. The group assignment was fine. The group also functioned well. The style of the report could be improved.
Example 2
For the cell biology practical I had to make diagrams of microscopic preparations. I was nervous about this, because I can’t draw very well. I tried to overcome my fear by following the guidelines very exactly. This worked: the tutor was satisfied with the result. I just have to watch out that my diagrams aren’t too ‘creative’ (i.e. that I imagine things which aren’t really there) and I forgot to add a proper text to some diagrams (description of the object and scale). Also I still make the diagrams too small and they are a bit too sketchy. Next time I will pay attention to these points.
In the product I include one good and one ‘not so good’ diagram with the tutor’s comments. By the end of the year I aim to have fully mastered diagrams. I intend to report regularly on my progress in this area in my portfolio.
Example 3
In this LP I wanted to leave more to others and not take responsibility for everything myself. In previous modules I ended up doing that and I don’t think it really helped me a lot. I intended to do this mainly by making sure that I do not immediately volunteer every time something has to be done. I also wanted to learn to listen more to other people’s ideas. I have a tendency to think that only my own ideas will work and then to insist on them.
I definitely succeeded in the first aim! I left a lot to others. Some people even thought I was too passive in the beginning, because they weren’t used to me acting like this. It is nice to see that things can go well even without me making the biggest contribution.
The second aim also went quite well. I did not really agree at all with what was planned. But there were often very useful ideas (like the idea of a rotating chair and secretary), which I would never have thought of.
Writing a process report and self-evaluation is not easy and it takes some practice! During the course of the year you will have the opportunity to improve your skills in this area.

The EFA learning cycle

The Tools menu also includes the EFA learning or work cycle. This cycle can help you in your analysis. It consists of four steps: Orientation, Planning, Implementation and Evaluation. All learning processes go through these phases. For example before you begin a module you find out about the module and the competencies you will work on. You also formulate your learning aims and make a plan based on your progress so far. You implement your plans and evaluate how they have worked out: have you learnt what you wanted to learn? What went well and not so well and so on. You can use these phases of the learning cycle to help you structure your process report.

Here are some examples of questions which you can ask yourself in each of the phases:

You can copy the diagrams of the learning Cycle and paste them into your portfolio.

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6. Competencies

At many schools and colleges you learn knowledge for its own sake, from books and lectures, without specifically asking yourself how and why you will use this knowledge. This makes it difficult to apply what you have learnt at school quickly and creatively in a real situation at work. Often knowledge from books was only learnt for a test or exam and it wasn’t used in a practical situation. In professional practice however it is not sufficient to simply use tricks and facts which you have learnt during training. You need to assemble a well-equipped 'toolkit' of knowledge and skills so you know how to act in the many various situations you will encounter in your profession. You need to have made this toolkit so much part of you that you can deal with concrete situations which are always different and often unexpected. The skills which enable you to be able to do this we call competencies.

Competencies can be continually developed. In principle you can continue to work on them your whole life! During your studies you will develop your competencies to the level required for starting in your profession. We call this level qualified to start teaching. As you will need to continue developing your competencies throughout your professional career, one skill you will definitely need to learn in your studies is the ability to continue learning or life-long learning. The ‘qualified to start’ level is therefore not a final level. In fact competencies have no final level. All you can do is measure how far you have progressed in your mastery of the competencies from time to time.

What do you have to be able to do then as a teacher? What are the competencies belonging to this profession?

A teacher needs to develop a broad range of competencies; here are some examples of these competencies:

Integrative assessment
Pupils or students are always influenced by what is demanded of them in testing and assessment. This means that you can direct learning through the manner of testing. In order to ensure that students at EFA work at the development of competencies instead of just learning from books for exams, a system of integrative assessments has been introduced. These assessments take place at three moments during your studies. At the end of the first year you will be assessed to see if you are qualified to enter the higher years of study. At the end of the third year there will be an assessment to see if you are qualified to go on your final teaching placement; in other words you will be assessed to find out whether you are ready to function as a teacher in training in a school. At the end of the fourth year, finally, you will be assessed to see if you are qualified to start teaching. This means that you are ready to start functioning independently as a teacher in a school.

An integrative assessment covers the whole range of your progress in all the competencies combined. In principle this will involve everything you have learnt in the preceding phase of your studies. When you are tested separately on all the different elements of knowledge and skills you have acquired this doesn’t show how well you can deal with the complex whole of teaching. You can only demonstrate this in a situation in which you need to combine all the knowledge and skills you have acquired in separate modules. The main idea in an integrative assessment is for you to demonstrate your level in the various competencies, by means of the evidence you have collected in your portfolio.

The competencies section in the portfolio
The starting page of the competencies section in the portfolio gives an overview of the competency areas or domains: every qualified starting teacher from EFA will have worked on the competency domains of Pedagogical and Methodological Skills, Working in a School Organisation and Professional Development. Within each of these three competency domains a number of different competencies are defined. The idea is that you regularly (once every teaching period will be enough for most students) record your progress in relation to each competency.

At the beginning of your studies you will try to define your starting level for each competency. It may be that in certain areas you are already very competent. For example you may have learnt a lot about working in a team from your holiday job; or you may have been involved in the organisation of school trips and have therefore gained insight into working with groups of young people. A number of other competencies will probably be quite new for you. Later in the year you will describe your progress in the competencies and give a chronological overview of your development, demonstrating (hopefully) that you have become increasingly competent. You will need to do this by referring to specific products and process reports by means of hyperlinks. Sometimes it may be sufficient to copy a part of a process report to a competency definition. Your mentor will look at your progress regularly. You can discuss your strengths and weaknesses with your mentor and decide which competencies need special attention.

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7. Presentations

Content and purpose
As described earlier the portfolio is a tool for making your development visible. All your collected products and process reports form the 'evidence' which you can use to demonstrate to others what you have learnt, what you already know and can do and what you still need to know and be able to do. However, you will need to edit this material first to make it meaningful and manageable. You can’t just say "Look, here is my portfolio; it contains thirty products and process reports and learning reports; look at, listen to and read them if you want to know how far I have progressed with the competencies". You need to explain how far you have progressed and to show evidence to back up your assertions. In other words you need to make a self-evaluation or strengths and weaknesses analysis and to present this in a professional manner to one or more assessors. The material for this presentation will be kept in the Presentations section of the portfolio.

When to make a presentation.
You may have to make a number of presentations of your learning process during the year, for example as a basis for discussion with your mentor or fellow students. But the most important one is at the end of the year. During the final presentation you will have to prove that you have developed sufficiently in certain competency domains to qualify for entry to the higher years of study.

How should you proceed?
Start by collecting as much material as possible from your portfolio for your strengths and weaknesses analysis. Determine first which competencies you want to discuss and then analyse the material you have collected in relation to this;

Write down your answers to these questions and collect, as evidence, short fragments from your products and your reports and of course all the feedback you have received from tutors and fellow students. Make a well-structured account out of all this. On the basis of this analysis or self evaluation you need to be able to say exactly where you now stand. And when you have established this, ask yourself what you are aiming for, where do you want to end up? In other words: you must also make new learning aims for next year. Finally in your report you need to pay attention to the question of how you stand in relation to the teaching profession.

In short, your presentation at the end of the foundation year consists of:

  1. A self-evaluation with references (hyperlinks) to products, process reports and competencies.
  2. Personal learning aims for the higher years based on your self-evaluation;
  3. Your vision on teaching and how you feel about becoming a teacher.
When you have finished this self-evaluation you are ready to prepare for the presentation itself. This means asking questions like: ‘what will I say and what will I show (selection) and in what form will I present this (presentation)?’. Now your presentation skills are important. You should of course remember the ICT and multimedia tools which are at your disposal, for example Power Point, hyperlinks, sheets, the white-board and so on. Don’t forget above all to pay attention to the clarity of your explanation and body language! Your account will be stronger if you choose a suitable form and present it convincingly.

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8. Overviews

This component of the portfolio is intended for overviews. For example you may want to include an overview of your results to date and the modules you have followed, or perhaps an overview of the learning aims you have formulated for yourself. Eventually we hope that you will be able to generate these overviews from a database. In the future you will make a contract for every learning practice or module which you follow, including your learning aims, the feedback you received and your marks. All this information will be included in a database. Both students and tutors will be able to consult this database to gain information and overviews pertaining to students’ progress.

This aspect of the portfolio has not yet been implemented. Of course you can still include your own overview of your results from the first year in your presentation at the end of the year.

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9. Links

This part of the portfolio includes a number of fixed links, for example to the: You can also include other links which you think visitors to your portfolio will find interesting. For example you can include a link to a site with pictures and photos from a certain historical period or a link to a site with information about science work in schools. As well as the exact URL (the Internet address of a site) you can also include a brief description of what to look for in the site.

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10. Tools

There are seven portfolio tools. Here we will give a short description of each of these tools. There are special User guides to some of the portfolio tools. Consult the Portfolio Info site for more information.


  1. Select color and language

  2. This tool allows you to change the color of the menu bar and the language (English or Dutch).
  3. Authorisations

  4. With this tool you can grant other people access to your portfolio. The opening page of your portfolio is always accessible to all EFA tutors and staff, but all other parts can be screened off. You can decide for each folder in your portfolio who has access to it. For example you could make the Products section open to everyone, the Competencies section only accessible to your mentor and the Presentations section only visible to your fellow students. Of course, nobody else but you can write or change anything in your portfolio. Visitors can only read what is written there.
  5. Administration

  6. This tool is for checking whether your name is included in the way you would like in the portfolio; you might want to change your first name. Your email address is included as a standard feature and you can also include a second email address. This is also where you can change your password.
  7. Contracts

  8. This option is not yet in operation.
  9. Learning cycle

  10. The EFA learning cycle is an instrument which can help you in your studies (see Process Reports). You can copy and paste the diagrams which you find here into your own portfolio.
  11. Competency scale

  12. You can show your progress towards mastery of a particular competency in a visual manner by means of a competency scale. On a 100-point scale you can show how far you think you have progressed at the present time. The programme remembers all the information it receives and you will be able to ask for an overview of this. You can ask for an overview of all the levels which you have registered for a particular competency, for example 'Working with others'. You can also ask for an overview of your level on all the competency scales on a particular date, for example at the end of the Foundation Year. These overviews are made available as a bar chart, so you can then copy and paste them into your portfolio.
  13. Competency administration

  14. This is where you will find an overview of all the competencies for your programme of studies. This may not yet be filled in when you first work with your portfolio; in that case the competencies for your programme have not yet been completed and you should ask your mentor what to fill in here. You can also add your own competencies in this section. An example: in the competencies for your programme you might find that there is nothing about 'enthusiasm for working with children' while you feel that this is an important competency. Moreover this is one of your strong points and you want to include it in your portfolio. In this case you can add this under 'My own Competencies'. The competency scale also works for competencies which you have added yourself (try it out!). Subsequently you collect evidence for this competency just like all the others. (see Competencies)
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Appendix: Used terms

Term (linked to text) Definition
Portfolio A collection of products and process reports produced during your studies, by means of which you can show your development in regard to the competency requirements for your subject in preparation for your presentation.
Product The physical result of an activity (report, recording, essay etc.) which you are including in your portfolio. A product may result from a module or an activity outside your studies but it must always (be shown to) contribute to your development in the curriculum competencies. Tutors and mentors will advise you about which products to include in your portfolio.
Learning Practice (LP) A learning environment of at least 4 credits combining elements of your subject of study (e.g., Maths) and your profession (teaching). In an LP you work towards specific products on the basis of individually-formulated learning aims, supported where possible by ICT.
Process Report A report attached to each product in your portfolio, in which you become conscious of and describe what you have learnt while working at the product (see also learning process). One report may also refer to all products for one module.
Presentation At the end of the foundation year you will analyse your learning process during the year by referring to your portfolio and you will present this analysis in a presentation.
Learning Process The (mostly unconscious) process of learning which you go through whenever you undertake any new activity (whether part of your studies or not).
Progress Report This is like a process report; but here you describe what you have learnt throughout a whole period.
Competency The ability to deal with a complex professional situation: to find fitting and creative solutions for situations you will meet in your profession.
Qualified to enter Higher Years When you have gained your Foundation Year certificate, you are qualified to enter the higher years and to start on the second year programme.
Qualified for Final Placement After three and a half years of study, if all goes well, you will be qualified to go on your final placement: the 'teacher in training' placement.
Qualified to start Teaching Qualified to function independently as a starting teacher and to develop further as a professional.
Assessor An assessor is someone who assesses your mastery of the competencies during an Integrative Assessment. Assessors may be tutors from the Department or externals. An assessor never assesses his or her own mentor students.
Digital Digital in this context means that your portfolio is made on the computer.
Internet The entire system of electronic communication between computers throughout the world through cables and phone lines.
Web Site A page with text and/or graphics and/or sound which can be accessed through the Internet.
World Wide Web The network of websites which can be accessed world-wide through the Internet. 
ICT or IT Information and Communication Technology 
Format or Template A fixed structure or form which can be filled in.
Hyperlink A link between two points in a text. If you click on a hyperlink (usually a word, phrase or symbol which is specially marked) this will take you to the linked point in the text.
Self Evaluation This literally means assessing yourself: seeing how far you have progressed. In the context of your curriculum portfolio it refers to the text in which you assess your progress in the various competency domains by referring to the relevant 'evidence' in your portfolio.
Reflection This is the process of looking back on an experience with the aim of learning as much as possible from it: realising what happened and drawing conclusions from this for the future.
Integrative Assessment This is the assessment procedure in which the self-evaluation of your progress in the competencies is assessed objectively by others. Moreover your ability to act in a 'critical situation' is also tested on-the-spot. The assessment is integrative in the sense that it involves not only each competency separately but also your ability to apply different competencies simultaneously, as you will have to do when carrying out your profession.

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Last update: July 2000- Claude Aflalo
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